Warm Forming is the process of deforming metal heated to a temperature that maximizes the material’s malleability without allowing re-crystallization, grain growth, or metallurgical fracture. The process allows the part to be successfully formed with net shape features and to final tolerance that eliminate secondary machining operations. The temperatures are determined by part material, geometry and final specifications and tolerances.
Warm forming has been done on forming machines for decades, primarily in the aerospace industry because of materials such as titanium. Historically 3-blow 2-die or double stroke (2-die, 2-blow) machines had induction heaters added to them. Today, specialized machines like FORMAX are made with advanced technology designed exactly for warm-formed applications.
Process temperatures are determined by part material, geometry, and final specifications and tolerances. Temperatures can range from 200-850 degrees C. Coolants and tool clearances typically change at temperatures exceeding 600°C. Possible material applications include:
Cold forming machines can be adapted or specially designed to be Warm formers, where the following features may be added: